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A late Bronze Age sword or dagger blade Metallic copper occurs on the surface of weathered copper ore deposits and copper was used before copper smelting was known.
Copper smelting is believed to have originated when the technology of pottery kilns allowed sufficiently high temperatures. Tin sources and trade in ancient times Bronze was a major advance over stone as a material for making tools, both because of its mechanical properties like strength and ductility and because it could be cast in molds to make intricately shaped objects.
Bronze significantly advanced shipbuilding technology with better tools and bronze nails. Bronze nails replaced the old method of attaching boards of the hull with cord woven through drilled holes. This technological writing a technology brief apparently began in the Fertile Crescent and spread outward over time.
These developments were not, and still are not, universal. The three-age system does not accurately describe the technology history of groups outside of Eurasiaand does not apply at all in the case of some isolated populations, such as the Spinifex Peoplethe Sentineleseand various Amazonian tribes, which still make use of Stone Age technology, and have not developed agricultural or metal technology.
Iron Age An axehead made of iron, dating from the Swedish Iron Age Before iron smelting was developed the only iron was obtained from meteorites and is usually identified by having nickel content.
Meteoric iron was rare and valuable, but was sometimes used to make tools and other implements, such as fish hooks. The Iron age involved the adoption of iron smelting technology.
It generally replaced bronze and made it possible to produce tools which were stronger, lighter and cheaper to make than bronze equivalents. The raw materials to make iron, such as ore and limestone, are far more abundant than copper and especially tin ores.
Consequently, iron was produced in many areas. It was not possible to mass manufacture steel or pure iron because of the high temperatures required.
Furnaces could reach melting temperature but the crucibles and molds needed for melting and casting had not been developed. Steel could be produced by forging bloomery iron to reduce the carbon content in a somewhat controllable way, but steel produced by this method was not homogeneous.
In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last major step before the development of written language, though again this was not universally the case. In Europe, large hill forts were built either as a refuge in time of war or sometimes as permanent settlements.
In some cases, existing forts from the Bronze Age were expanded and enlarged. The pace of land clearance using the more effective iron axes increased, providing more farmland to support the growing population. Egyptians[ edit ] The Egyptians invented and used many simple machines, such as the ramp to aid construction processes.
Egyptian society made significant advances during dynastic periods in areas such as astronomy, mathematics, and medicine.
They also made paper and monuments. The Egyptians made significant advances in shipbuilding. Astronomy was used by Egyptian leaders to govern people. Indus Valley[ edit ] The Indus Valley Civilizationsituated in a resource-rich area, is notable for its early application of city planning and sanitation technologies.
Indus Valley construction and architecture, called ' Vaastu Shastra ', suggests a thorough understanding of materials engineering, hydrology, and sanitation.
Mesopotamians[ edit ] The peoples of Mesopotamia SumeriansAkkadiansAssyriansand Babylonians have been credited with the invention of the wheelbut this is no longer certain.
They lived in cities from c. The walls of Babylon were so massive they were quoted as a Wonder of the World. They developed extensive water systems; canals for transport and irrigation in the alluvial south, and catchment systems stretching for tens of kilometers in the hilly north.
Their palaces had sophisticated drainage systems. Many records on clay tablets and stone inscriptions have survived.This is a personal weblog. The opinions expressed represent my own views and not those of any institution in which I am currently studying or employed. The brief and problem is mainly text (writing) that is printed in a clear style so that it can be read and understood easily.
2. The problem is a paragraph or more in length. The Brief Prose Reader, like its full-length version, is based on the assumption that lucid writing follows lucid thinking, whereas poor written work is almost inevitably the product of foggy, irrational thought processes.
As a result, our primary purpose in this book is to help students think more clearly and logically—both in their minds and on paper. If you are worried about writing your first resume, or struggling with the task, you're not alone!
However, it does not have to be intimidating. Many experts would argue that successful design comes down to an effective design brief. In this article, we explore the elements you need to develop a design brief, and look at some strong examples to guide you.
Inspired? Why not use Canva to create your next brief. Writing an essay is like making a hamburger. Think of the introduction and conclusion as the bun, with the "meat" of your argument in between.