Streptococcus pneumoniae essay

But a growing community of researchers is sounding the warning that many of these microscopic guests are really ancient allies.

Streptococcus pneumoniae essay

Alactolyticus Kawarmura et al. USA and PasteurFrance who independently inaccessible diplococcic from rabbits that had been inoculated with human saliva Taylor,et al.

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The pneumococcus is a lancet shaped gram-positive diplococcus characterized by a surrounding polysaccharide capsuleSince it is alpha hemolytic, bile soluble and optochin sensitive, it can be identified by conventional microbiological Streptococcus pneumoniae essay, using morphological characteristics and biochemical tests Spijkerman ,et al.

It is an exclusively human pathogenfacultatively anaerobic and although it can grow aerobically Bergey, et al. The colony morphology depends on the capsule and cell well composition Watson et al. Thusthe typical shape of the colonies is ruffled and smoothwith a sunken centre White The pneumococcal surface is covered by a polysaccharide capsule that overlays the cell wall comprised of peptidoglycan and teichoic acid, Although the peptidoglycan Streptococcus pneumoniae essay structure of N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid, and a lysine-containing stem peptide, the teichoic acid is unusual in containing a ribitol phosphate backbone and covalently attached phosphorylcholine PCho Bean and Tomasz, The best surface protein are the lipoprotein pneumococcal surface adhesion A PsaAthe enzyme immunoglobulin A-protease and neuraminidases and three choline-binding proteins, pneumococcal surface protein A, major pneumococcal autolysin and pneumococcal surface protein C PspC, also referred to as CbpA or SpsA Palmu, et al.

Several new proteins and other surface components involved in the adherence and virulence mechanisms have been recognised recently Koivunen ,et al.

Streptococcus pneumoniae essay

A subpopulation of pneumococci produces pilus-like protein structures, able to extend beyond the polysaccharide capsule Hyypia, et al. One of the most intensively studied intracellular structures is pneumolysin, a toxin common to all clinically relevant pneumococcal strains Heikkinen and ChronmaitreeIt is also the main ausative agent for community-acquired pneumonia [CAP] Waterer ,et al.

It patient with fundamental medical condition the incidence of pneumococcal infection may be as high as to per Pneumonia was the main cause of child loss in progressive polity, and in the US init is likely that pneumonia killed 47 of every 1, children previously the age of 5 years scott ,et al.


Improvement in nutrition and living values in the US in the first 40 years of the 20 th century directed to a substantial decrease in pneumonia mortality fully before antibiotics developed available as an active treatment Howeverin the low — income countries of Africa and Asia, pneumonia is yet the leading cause of child doom.

Socioeconomic factors also play a role in infections as revealed by the fact that Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistant S. Thus, often young children are responsible for the introduction of new serotypes into a household Millaret al.

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Vaccinating children provides herd immunity to non vaccinated adult ,and has drive to a nearly one — third decrease in the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease amongst adults aged 50 and older Lexau, et al. Nterestingly,there are differences in pneumococcal infections saw between different ethnicities, For example, the indigenous populations in Alaska, Canada, Greenland as well as the American Indians, African Americans in the USA, Australian Aborigines, Maoris of New Zealand and the Bedouins of Israel are more often affected by invasive pneumococcal diseases and there is confirmation that genetic factors play a role Hammittet al.

Universal the pneumococcus is responsible for more than The arrhythmiacardiac failure and acute coronary syndromewhich are associated with an increased overall danger of mortality from Invasive pneumococcal disease seem to depend on both pneumococcal cell wall constituent including lipoteichoic and peptidoglycan ,in addition to a multitude of virulence factor that include pneumolysin [PLY] JedrezejasAlthough knowledge of the mechanism important to pneumococcal colonization is still limitedit seems that a critical tread in this process is the binding of human host protein via a complex array of bacterial adhesions Hammerschmidt Pneumonia results when pneumococci descend into the lungs and inflame the alveoli, leading to fluid inflowing the air space and inhibiting oxygenation of the blood.Differences between polysaccharide and polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines.

Polysaccharides vaccines have been in use for the past thirty to forty years in order to prevent infections such as Streptococcus Pneumonia and Neisseria meningitis (caused .

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Atypical pneumonia, also know as walking pneumonia, is a less severe form of pneumonia caused by certain bacteria. Learn about the bacteria most commonly responsible for atypical pneumonia, as. Name Institutional Affiliation Course Title/Module Instructor's Name Date Identification of Bacteria Sample A: Streptococcus pneumoniae Staphylococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus colonizes the nasopharynx of humans and produces a number of virulence factors such as surface proteins and enzymes, polysaccharide capsule and .

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Welcome to the most blatantly honest Norwex product reviews that you'll find on the net. My goal here is to provide real and useful reviews of Norwex products that will. Streptococcus pneumoniae lives in the upper respiratory tract of a human body.

This bacterium is the cause of pneumonia, especially lobar pneumonia, otitis media and paranasal sinusitis, or meningitis, that is usually secondary to the infections mentioned.

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