Muslimthe word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, and means "submitter" or "one who surrenders".
In German, Islamophobie fear and Islamfeindlichkeit hostility are used. The Scandinavian term Muslimhat literally means "hatred of Muslims". Islamophobia reintroduces and reaffirms a global racial structure through which resource distribution disparities are maintained and extended.
In the Runnymede report, Islamophobia was defined as "an outlook or world-view involving an unfounded dread and dislike of Muslims, which results in practices of exclusion and discrimination.
The symposium proposed a definition of Islamophobia which rejected the idea of Islamophobia as being the product of closed and open views of Islam, and focused on Islamophobia as performative which problematized Muslim agency and identity.
The symposium was an early attempt to bring insights from critical race theory, postcolonial and decolonial thought to bear on the question of Islamophobia. Nonetheless, he argued that the term is here to stay, and that it is important to define it precisely.
As with parallel concepts like homophobia or xenophobia, Islamophobia connotes a broader set of negative attitudes or emotions directed at individuals of groups because of perceived membership in a defined category. New racism Several scholars consider Islamophobia to be a form of xenophobia or racism.
A article in Journal of Sociology defines Islamophobia as anti-Muslim racism and a continuation of anti- Asiananti-Turkic and anti-Arab racism.
Jocelyne Cesari writes that "academics are still debating the legitimacy of the term and questioning how it differs from other terms such as racism, anti-Islamism, anti-Muslimness, and anti-Semitism.
Diane Frost defines Islamophobia as anti-Muslim feeling and violence based on "race" or religion. He writes that the target of hostility in the modern era is not Islam and its tenets as much as it is Muslims, suggesting that a more accurate term would be "Anti-Muslimism".
He also states that strains and types of prejudice against Islam and Muslims vary across different nations and cultures, which is not recognized in the Runnymede analysis, which was specifically about Muslims in Britain.
The experiment showed that their definition provided a tool for accurate differentiation. Robin Richardson writes that in the English version of the book the word was not translated as "Islamophobia" but rather as "feelings inimical to Islam".
Dahou Ezzerhouni has cited several other uses in French as early asand from to For some, the Muslim is the natural and irreconcilable enemy of the Christian and the European; Islam is the negation of civilization, and barbarism, bad faith and cruelty are the best one can expect from the Mohammedans.
Because radical Islam was a new topic, so was the hate towards Islam, which created the term "Islamaphobia.
Islam is seen as a monolithic bloc, static and unresponsive to change. It is seen as separate and "other". It does not have values in common with other cultures, is not affected by them and does not influence them. It is seen as inferior to the West. It is seen as barbaric, irrational, primitive, and sexist.
It is seen as violent, aggressive, threatening, supportive of terrorismand engaged in a clash of civilizations. Criticisms made of "the West" by Muslims are rejected out of hand. Hostility towards Islam is used to justify discriminatory practices towards Muslims and exclusion of Muslims from mainstream society.
Anti-Muslim hostility is seen as natural and normal.
Identity politics It has been suggested that Islamophobia is closely related to identity politicsand gives its adherents the perceived benefit of constructing their identity in opposition to a negative, essentialized image of Muslims.The Concept of Servant and Islamic Leadership: A Comparative Analysis Mahazan Abdul Mutalib Wan Mohd.
Fazrul Azdi Wan Razali Univevsiti Sains Is lam Malaysia Abstract The purpose of this research is to explore and examine the similarities and dijferences between the concepts of Servant Leadership (S.
For centuries, Muslim women in all corners of the world have been aware of the liberation that is achieved by adhering to the concept of hijab. Current world events have once again brought the issue of women’s liberation in Islam to the forefront of people’s minds.
Mattias Gardell defines Islamophobia as "socially reproduced prejudices and aversion to Islam and Muslims, as well as actions and practices that attack, exclude or discriminate against persons on the basis that they are or perceived to be Muslim and be associated with Islam".
Get an answer for 'Examine the concept of Jihad in modern Islamic practice.
' and find homework help for other Islam questions at eNotes. Accordingly, in this morning’s talk I want, first, to look at the principal Islamic critique of the Christian conception of God, and then, second, to examine critically the Muslim concept of God, with a view toward determining its adequacy.
Islam and Muslim Societies: A Social Science Journal Vol. 6, No. 2 () alphabetnyc.com Concept of Management in Islam – An Alternative Approach to .