Footnotes Introduction "The total amount of suffering per year in the natural world is beyond all decent contemplation.
One program tested in Kenya jumped out, and the Rwandan government wanted to know whether it would likely work in Rwanda as well. A randomized controlled trial RCT found that showing eighth-grade girls and Essay on populations a minute video and statistics on the higher rates of HIV among older men dramatically changed behavior: The number of teen girls who became pregnant with an older man within the following 12 months fell by more than 60 percent.
Random assignment determined which girls received the risk awareness program and which girls continued to receive the standard curriculum. Our government partners could thereby have confidence that the reduction in risky behavior was actually caused by the program.
But if they replicated this approach in a new context, could they expect the impact to be similar? Policy makers repeatedly face this generalizability puzzle—whether the results of a specific program generalize to other contexts—and there has been a long-standing debate among policy makers about the appropriate response.
An Essay on the Principle of Population An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin. click here Energy and Human Evolution by David Price. Please address correspondence to Dr. Price, Carpenter Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY The Population Control Agenda Stanley K. Monteith, M.D. One of the most difficult concepts for Americans to accept is that there are human beings dedicated to .
But the discussion is often framed by confusing and unhelpful questions, such as: Should policy makers rely on less rigorous evidence from a local context or more rigorous evidence from elsewhere? And must a new experiment always be done locally before a program is scaled up?
These questions present false choices. Rigorous impact evaluations are designed not to replace the need for local data but to enhance their value. This complementarity between detailed knowledge of local institutions and global knowledge of common behavioral relationships is fundamental to the philosophy and practice of our work at the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab J-PALa center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology founded in with a network of affiliated professors and professional staff around the world.
Four Misguided Approaches To give a sense of our philosophy, it may help to first examine four common, but misguided, approaches about evidence-based policy making that our work seeks to resolve.
Can a study inform policy only in the location in which it was undertaken? Kaushik Basu has argued that an impact evaluation done in Kenya can never tell us anything useful about what to do in Rwanda because we do not know with certainty that the results will generalize to Rwanda.
Describing general behaviors that are found across settings and time is particularly important for informing policy. The best impact evaluations are designed to test these general propositions about human behavior.
Should we use only whatever evidence we have from our specific location?
In an effort to ensure that a program or policy makes sense locally, researchers such as Lant Pritchett and Justin Sandefur argue that policy makers should mainly rely on whatever evidence is available locally, even if it is not of very good quality.
The challenge is to pair local information with global evidence and use each piece of evidence to help understand, interpret, and complement the other.
Should a new local randomized evaluation always precede scale up? One response to the concern for local relevance is to use the global evidence base as a source for policy ideas but always to test a policy with a randomized evaluation locally before scaling it up.
With limited resources and evaluation expertise, we cannot rigorously test every policy in every country in the world. We need to prioritize. For example, there have been more than 30 analyses of 10 randomized evaluations in nine low- and middle- income countries on the effects of conditional cash transfers.
While there is still much that could be learned about the optimal design of these programs, it is unlikely to be the best use of limited funds to do a randomized impact evaluation for every new conditional cash transfer program when there are many other aspects of antipoverty policy that have not yet been rigorously tested.
Must an identical program or policy be replicated a specific number of times before it is scaled up? One of the most common questions we get asked is how many times a study needs to be replicated in different contexts before a decision maker can rely on evidence from other contexts.Jan 10, · Feature.
The Lawyer Who Became DuPont’s Worst Nightmare. Rob Bilott was a corporate defense attorney for eight years. Then he took on . With member countries, staff from more than countries, and offices in over locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries.
Paul Andersen explains how ecosystems interact with biotic and abiotic factors. He explains and gives examples of food chains and food webs.
He shows how limiting factors eventually leads to logistic growth. click here Energy and Human Evolution by David Price. Please address correspondence to Dr. Price, Carpenter Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Example of an Essay on Population.
By Lauren Bradshaw. February 17, Sample Essays. The world is a very big place with a population of 6,,, people and always growing. The world and its important resources are being destroyed by populations growing in such small areas. Professional courses and coaching foster a student-centered approach to instruction that helps students grow as readers, writers, and independent learners.