The next concept—scale, proportion, and quantity—concerns the sizes of things and the mathematical relationships among disparate elements. The next four concepts—systems and system models, energy and matter flows, structure and function, and stability and change—are interrelated in that the first is illuminated by the other three. Each concept also stands alone as one that occurs in virtually all areas of science and is an important consideration for engineered systems as well.
Here is a working list of species concepts presently in play. I quote "Concepts" above because, for philosophical reasons, I think there is only one concept - "species", and all the rest are conceptions, or definitions, of that concept.
I have christened this the Synapormorphic Concept of Species in Wilkins More under the fold: A Summary of 26 species concepts There are numerous species "concepts" i.
Mayden has listed 22 distinct species concepts along with synonyms, which provides a useful starting point for a review. I have added authors where I can locate them in addition to Mayden's references, and instead of his abbreviations I have tried to give the concepts names, such as biospecies for Biological Species, etc.
There have also been several additional concepts since Mayden's review, which I have added the views of Pleijel and Wu, and several new revisions presented in Wheeler and Meier I also add some "partial" species concepts - the compilospecies concept and the nothospecies concept.
I distinguish between two phylospecies concepts that go by various names, mostly the names of the authors presenting at the time as in the Wheeler and Meier volume. To remedy this terminological inflation, I have christened them the Autapomorphic species concept and the Phylogenetic Taxon species concept.
CainEigenfor quasispecies Specifications: Asexual lineages, uniparental organisms parthenogens and apomictsthat cluster together in terms of their genome. May be secondarily uniparental from biparental ancestors. Nelson and Platnick ; Rosen Specification: A geographically constrained group of individuals with some unique apomorphous characters, the unit of evolutionary significance Rosen ; simply the smallest detected samples of self-perpetuating organisms that have unique sets of characters Nelson and Platnick ; the smallest aggregation of sexual populations or asexual lineages diagnosable by a unique combination of character traits Wheeler and Platnick Syngen, speciationist species concept Related concepts: Biological species concept, Genetic species, isolation species Principal authors: Inclusive Mendelian population of sexually reproducing organisms Dobzhansky,interbreeding natural population isolated from other such groups Mayr, ; Mayr and Ashlock Depends upon endogenous reproductive isolating mechanisms RIMs.
Internodal species concept, Hennigian species concept, Hennigian convention Principal authors: Hennig ; ; Kornet Specifications: Set of organisms between speciation events or between speciation event and extinction Ridleya segment of a phylogenetic lineage between nodes.
Upon speciation the ancestral species is extinguished and two new species are named. Cohesive individual in part Ghiselin and Hull Principal authors: Evolutionary lineages bounded by cohesion mechanisms that cause reproductive communities, particularly genetic exchange, and ecological interchangeability.
Introgressive taxa Principal authors: HarlanAguilar Specifications: A species pair where one species "plunders" the genetic resources of another via introgressive interbreeding. Phylospecies in partInternodal species in partcladospecies in part Principal authors: All organisms belonging to an internodon and its descendents until any subsequent internodon.
An internodon is defined as a set of organisms whose parent-child relations are not split have the INT relation.
Evolutionary species sensu Simpson, Ecological mosaics Principal authors: A lineage or closely related set of lineages which occupies an adaptive zone minimally different from that of any other lineage in its range and which evolves separately from all lineages outside its range.
Unit of evolution, evolutionary group Related concepts: Evolutionary significant unit Principal authors: Simpson ; Wiley ; Specifications: A lineage an ancestral-descendent sequence of populations evolving separately from others and with its own unitary evolutionary role and tendencies Simpson.
Evolutionary significant unit Synonyms: Biospecies in part and evolutionary species in part Principal authors: A population or group of populations that 1 is substantially reproductively isolated from other conspecific population units, and 2 represents an important component in the evolutionary legacy of the species.
Genealogical concordance species Synonyms: Biospecies in partcladospecies in partphylospecies in part Principal authors: Avise and Ball Specifications:Here is a working list of species concepts presently in play.
I quote "Concepts" above because, for philosophical reasons, I think there is only one concept - "species", and all the rest are. List of philosophical concepts.
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A priori and a posteriori; Absolute; Absolute time and space; Abstract and concrete. Recipe for Life. Posted on September 27, Filed Under Life with a Halo | Leave a Comment First Published by Debbie Gore in “What is the true meat of your success” is the question I asked Renie Steves in my Recipe for Life interview, and it seems everything stemmed from there.
Electronic Portfolios at SLCC. Starting August , all students creating ePortfolios for the first time are required to build with SLCC's official platform, Digication.
Written Chinese is not based on an alphabet or a compact syllabary. Instead, Chinese characters are glyphs whose components may depict objects or represent abstract notions. Occasionally a character consists of only one component; more commonly two or more components are combined to form more complex characters, using a variety of different .