Western Culture Morality and values are the constructs most often included in definitions of ethics see Table 1and reasonably so. In America, morality and values derive largely from the religious and philosophical traditions of Western culture.
References and Further Reading 1. We may define metaethics as the study of the origin and meaning of ethical concepts.
When compared to normative ethics and applied ethics, the field of metaethics is the least precisely defined area of moral philosophy. It covers issues from moral semantics to moral epistemology.
Two issues, though, are prominent: Objectivism and Relativism Metaphysics is the study of the kinds of things that exist in the universe.
Some things in the universe are made of physical stuff, such as rocks; and perhaps other things are nonphysical in nature, such as thoughts, spirits, and gods. The metaphysical component of metaethics involves discovering specifically whether moral values are eternal truths that exist in a spirit-like realm, or simply human conventions.
There are two general directions that discussions of this topic take, one other-worldly and one this-worldly.
Proponents of the other-worldly view typically hold that moral values are objective in the sense that they exist in a spirit-like realm beyond subjective human conventions. They also hold that they are absolute, or eternal, in that they never change, and also that they are universal insofar as they apply to all rational creatures around the world and throughout time.
The most dramatic example of this view is Platowho was inspired by the field of mathematics. Humans do not invent numbers, and humans cannot alter them.
|Business ethics - Wikipedia||The Bible[ edit ] According to traditional Jewish enumeration, the Hebrew canon is composed of 24 books which came into being over a span of almost a millennium.|
Plato explained the eternal character of mathematics by stating that they are abstract entities that exist in a spirit-like realm. He noted that moral values also are absolute truths and thus are also abstract, spirit-like entities. In this sense, for Plato, moral values are spiritual objects. Medieval philosophers commonly grouped all moral principles together under the heading of "eternal law" which were also frequently seen as spirit-like objects.
In either case, though, they exist in a spirit-like realm. Sometimes called voluntarism or divine command theorythis view was inspired by the notion of an all-powerful God who is in control of everything. God simply wills things, and they become reality.
He wills the physical world into existence, he wills human life into existence and, similarly, he wills all moral values into existence. God informs humans of these commands by implanting us with moral intuitions or revealing these commands in scripture.
The second and more this-worldly approach to the metaphysical status of morality follows in the skeptical philosophical tradition, such as that articulated by Greek philosopher Sextus Empiricus, and denies the objective status of moral values.
Technically, skeptics did not reject moral values themselves, but only denied that values exist as spirit-like objects, or as divine commands in the mind of God.
Moral values, they argued, are strictly human inventions, a position that has since been called moral relativism. There are two distinct forms of moral relativism. The first is individual relativism, which holds that individual people create their own moral standards.
Friedrich Nietzsche, for example, argued that the superhuman creates his or her morality distinct from and in reaction to the slave-like value system of the masses. In addition to espousing skepticism and relativism, this-worldly approaches to the metaphysical status of morality deny the absolute and universal nature of morality and hold instead that moral values in fact change from society to society throughout time and throughout the world.
They frequently attempt to defend their position by citing examples of values that differ dramatically from one culture to another, such as attitudes about polygamy, homosexuality and human sacrifice.
Psychological Issues in Metaethics A second area of metaethics involves the psychological basis of our moral judgments and conduct, particularly understanding what motivates us to be moral. We might explore this subject by asking the simple question, "Why be moral? Some answers to the question "Why be moral?
Egoism and Altruism One important area of moral psychology concerns the inherent selfishness of humans. Even if an action seems selfless, such as donating to charity, there are still selfish causes for this, such as experiencing power over other people. This view is called psychological egoism and maintains that self-oriented interests ultimately motivate all human actions.Decisions are the heart of success and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing and nerve racking.
This side provides useful and practical guidance for making efficient and effective decisions in both public and private life. Join Bob McGannon for an in-depth discussion in this video, Business ethics: Matters and practice, part of Business Ethics.
This document is designed as an introduction to thinking ethically. It is also available as an app. We all have an image of our better selves -- of how we are when we act ethically or are "at our best." We probably also have an image of what an ethical community, an ethical business, an ethical.
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The IBE regularly produces research publications on a range of topics relating to business ethics in business. Business Ethics Of The Business World - Ethics in the business world in my viewpoint are a great thing for businesses. The term ethics, according to Understanding Business, is the standards of moral behavior, that is, behavior accepted by society as right versus wrong (Nickels, ).